is a city, district and division in the Sindh province. The city is an administrative headquarters lying on the
most northern hill of the Ganjo Takkar ridge just east of the River Indus. Being the third largest city of
Pakistan, Hyderabad is a communication center, connected by rail with Peshawar and Karachi.
Founded in 1768 on the site of the ancient town of Nirun-Kot by Ghulam Shah Kalhora, the saintly ruler of Sindh, it was named after
the prophet Mohammed's son-in-law, Ali, also known as Haidar. It remained the capital of sindh under the Talpur rulers who succeeded
the Kalhoras till 1843 when, after the nearby battles of Miani and Dabo, it surrendered to the British, the capital was then
transferred to Karachi.
Incorporated as a municipality in 1853, it is an important commercial and industrial center. Its economic
activities include textile, sugar, cement, and hosiery mills, manufacturing of glass, soap, ice, paper, and
plastics. There are hide tanneries and sawmills. Ornamented silks, silver-work, gold-work and lacquer ware
are also some of its exclusive products. Noteworthy antiquities include the tombs of the Kalhora and Talpur
ruler, palaces of the former amirs of Sindh. Newly developed settlements and industrial estates surround the
congested old city area. An noteworthy characteristic of this city is, badgirs (wind-catchers) fixed to housetops
to catch sea breezes during the hot summer season. A hospital, municipal gardens, zoo, sports stadium, and
several literary societies are in the city. The University of Sindh with 32 affiliated colleges was
founded in 1947 in Karachi and moved to Hyderabad in 1951, where it lies across the Indus. Other education
needs are served by numerous government colleges, the Liaquat Medical College and specialized vocational
remained the capital of the emirate of Sindh until the British general Sir Charles James Napier conquered
Sindh in 1843. From 1947 to 1955 Hyderabad was the capital of
Sindh Province, the new capital was shifted to Hyderabad. In 1766 the Kalhora ruler constructed a fort
half a square km in area and still stands today. In 1843 the British arrived and defeated the Talpurs, Completing
their Conquest of Sindh.
a second largest city of Sindh Province. It has over 6 Millions population. The city has one of the most
interesting bazaar of the country, which is known to be the longest bazaar in Asia. There are two very well
arranged ethnological museums in the city One The Sindh Museum and the other the Institute of Sindhology Museum.
Both museums present an excellent portrait of cultural and tribal life of Sindh. The city is transit point for
the tours from Karachi to the Interior of Sindh A visit to Kalhora Monuments close to the city gate is worth a
visit, Mausoleums are beautifully decorated with glazed tiles and frescos. There are also two forts from 18th &
19th Century to see here.
Famous for its cool breeze and balmy nights, and known for its
Bombay Bakery Cakes, Its delicate bangles and the paagalkhana called Giddu Bandar, Hyderabad is Sindh's
Second largest city, a city its inhabitants claim is the most beautiful in the world, Its spacious houses are
known for their manghan, roshandans or ventilators and it is also known as "mangham jo shahar."
'The heart of Sindh' as many call Hyderabad, was the former capital of
Sindh, ruled by the Kalhoras and Talpurs from the
Pacca Qila until the British conquest.
A nerve center of Sindh nationalist and literary movements, the city is now divided along on
Sindhi-Mohajir lines to the
extent that the warning ethnic groups even have different hospitals and in many cases, even their places of worship and graveyards are divided. The original old
city, now dominated by the mohajirs, seems besieged by the surrounding Sindhi suburbs. At one time a hub of
economic, educational and cultural activities, a breeding ground of academicians, philanthropists, writers, lawyers, politicians, journalists, actors and
actresses, Hyderabad also had its industrialists, trade unionists, political activists, bureaucrats, bankers and
diplomats who made a significant contribution to sub continental society. But this gracious city now seems
to be slowly dying, although it still produces over a couple of dozen major and minor newspapers in both
Sindhi and Urdu.
Hyderabad, once the capital of Sindh and now the eighth largest city
of Pakistan, is one of the oldest cities of the sub-continent. Its history dates back to pre-Islamic times, when Ganjo Taken (barren hill), a nearby hilly
tract, was used as a place of worship. The city traces its early history to Neroon, a Hindu ruler of the area from whom the city derived its previous name, "Neroon